Oversight and enforcement: Taking stock of design choices and trade-offs


  • Jennifer Baker


  • Alice Munyua
  • Willem Debeuckelaere
  • Shinjini Kumar
  • Anais Le Gouguec

Organisation: Mozilla

Room: Grand Hall Online

Timing: 14:15 - 15:30 on 28 January 2021

Questions of oversight and enforcement are at the fore in several domains of digital policy. Existing legislative frameworks within the data protection sphere tend to include comprehensive oversight structures, while contemporary debates concerning content regulation and competition in digital markets are heavily occupied with the potential role of new oversight and enforcement mechanisms.

This panel discussion will comparatively assess issues around oversight and enforcement, drawing from experience from within and without the tech sector. In doing so, it will provide guidance for policymakers and policy stakeholders on the necessary conditions for effective oversight and enforcement in existing and future regulatory frameworks.

• What has worked and what has not worked in terms of the oversight and enforcement structures of the GDPR?
• What insights should tech policy regulators learn from this when considering the governance set-up for other policy issues (e.g. online content)?
• What resources and powers to regulators in the tech sector require to execute their mandate in respective domains
• What can we learn about oversight and enforcement from other sectors that have a long tradition of agency-led regulation (e.g. financial services)?


Jennifer Baker

EU technology journalist (BE)

Better known as Brusselsgeek, Jennifer has been a journalist in print, radio and television for nearly 20 years, the last 8+ specialising in EU policy and legislation particularly in the technology sector — from data protection and privacy to copyright law; antitrust cases to international trade agreements. She has worked across a wide range of media, from editing a national daily paper in Malta, to reporting on European affairs for Middle Eastern television and has a wealth of experience in navigating the political quagmire of the EU. As well as an address book packed with insider sources and contacts in Brussels, Jennifer is skilled at translating EU policy-speak into understandable English.


Alice Munyua

Mozilla Corporation (US)

Alice Munyua is the Director of Africa Innovation at Mozilla. She leads Mozilla’s Innovation and Public Policy portfolios for the Africa region. She served as a member of the board of the Kenya Communications Regulatory Authority, led African Government engagement in the African Union Commission Dot Africa initiative, represented both the Kenya government and the AUC at the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC), while there she served as vice-chair for 2 years and founding chair of the GAC Public Safety and Under-Served Regions Working Groups. She has been involved with the internet society in different capacities, including as a member of the board of trustees for 3 years.

Willem Debeuckelaere

Former President, Belgium Privacy Commission (BE)

Willem Debeuckelaere is law graduate of the University of Ghent, Belgium. He worked as a lawyer from 1977 till 1995. He was President of the “Human Rights League” from 1982 to 1989. He published on legal aid, constitutional and administrative law, privacy and data protection. He was head of the cabinet of the Belgian Minister of the Interior from 1995 till 1998. He was first nominated judge of the tribunal of first instance and then, in 2002, counsellor of the Court of Appeal of Ghent. He was Vice-President of the “Belgian Commission for the Protection of Privacy” from 2004 till March 2007. He has been President of this Privacy Commission since April 2007 till May 2018. He is the first President of the new GDPR-conform Belgian Data Protection Authority. He is also Vice-President of the “Art. 29 Working Party” since 2016 which became the European Data Protection Board since 25 May 2018. He is academic counsellor since January 2017 and visiting professor since March 2018 at the University of Ghent. He is a fellow of the Solvay institute of the Free University of Brussels 2016. He received an outstanding leadership award 2017 from the Belgian Association of Clinical Research Professionals. After the nomination of the new management of the Belgian Authority he retired on 1 may 2019 and is working at Ghent University in the new project “Pixles” : a multi-disciplinary approach on the interplay technology and privacy.

Shinjini Kumar

Former Country Business Manager, Consumer Banking, CitiBank India (IN)

In retrospect, it all adds up. But this was not the plan when I joined the Reserve bank of India in 1990 with an unusual background in English Literature and journalism. In my seventeen years at the central bank, I handled diverse portfolios and took a sabbatical to acquire M.A. in Public Policy at the UT-Austin, Texas, USA (1999-2001). I left RBI in 2007 to join Bank of America Merrill Lynch as Country Compliance Officer (2007-2010) and then moved on to PricewaterhouseCoopers as Director/partner-Banking and Capital Markets (2010-16). I headed Paytm Payments Bank briefly before accepting the position of Country Business Manager for Citibank’s Consumer Bank in India in 2017. I have just retired from Citi to set up my Startup in the space of women, money and choices.

Anais Le Gouguec


Anais Le Gouguec works currently at the French telco regulator ARCEP as Head of the Economic analysis and digital intelligence Unit. She focusses notably on market analyses and platforms regulation. She was also co-chair of the BEREC (Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communication) Market Economic Analysis working group.
Ms Le Gouguec has master’s degrees in Finance and Economics from LSE and one in Econometrics and Quantitative Economics from Ensae ParisTech.